It is China’s largest province, with a terrain of deserts, mountains, and oases. The Tarim Basin dominates the majority of the region, which is ruled by the severe Taklamakan desert and ringed by high mountains the Kunlun shah to the south, the Karakorum to the west, and the Tian shah to the north. The Tian Shah’s alpine splendor separates the Tarim Basin from the smaller Junggar Basin, which has more moisture and grass. Xinjiang was an important historic link along the Silk Roads, lying between the cultural empires of China in the East and Central Asia in the west. The peoples who lived near the rim of the Tarim Basin’s oases had stronger ties to Persia and the Islamic influences of the Middle East.
Xinjiang has a lot of oil. The Taklamakan is too desolate for agriculture, yet it is frequently utilized as a nuclear test site. Despite the fact that the railroad does not go all the way west into the province. Tourism is growing in this spectacularly beautiful region with a plethora of ancient treasures such as Buddhist cave temples, ruined cities and fortresses, petroglyphs, and 4,000-year-old mummies.
This region’s major physical feature is its winter cold and ice. Its two huge wetlands are also peculiar and significant, with the northernmost connected with the Songari River and the southerners with the Liao River. Nonetheless, its primary natural resources of iron ore and coal have made it economically important to the rest of China. Manchuria is China’s most major heavy industry region. In the seventeenth century, the Manchus invaded China, creating the Qing dynasty in 1644. The Manchurian Lands were not open to Han colonization until the collapse of the dynasty in 1911.